IDNs by type

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In broad terms, there are two types of Top-Level Domains:

  • Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLD) are assigned to countries or territories occurring in the ISO 3166 list.  Each ccTLD is organised, managed and typically based at the local level in the country or territory designated by the TLD ending.  Examples of ccTLDs include .eu, .de and .рф;
  • Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLD) do not necessarily have a geographical nexus, and are coordinated at the international level through ICANN.  The gTLD namespace expanded significantly in 2012, through the ICANN new gTLD programme. Examples of gTLDs include .com, .net and .网址.

In December 2017 there were 5.1 million IDNs (or 70%) in ccTLDs and 2.3 million IDNs (30%) in gTLDs.  Between December 2016-2017 the growth rate of IDNs in ccTLDs was -19%, while the growth rate of IDNs in gTLDs was 0%.  These figures include IDNs at the top and second level.